Liquid metals for fusion applications

Liquid Metal eXperiment Upgrade (LMX-U)

LMX-U (Liquid Metal eXperiment Upgrade) is a liquid metal loop capable of free-surface liquid metal flow within a magnetic field. The working fluid of LMX-U is galinstan (GaInSn eutectic), a non-toxic and non-reactive liquid metal that stays liquid down to -19˚C. Galinstan is pumped from an outlet tank up to an adjustable inlet nozzle that controls the flow depth. The channel itself is situated within a C-shaped electromagnet capable of up to 0.33[T]. At either end of the channel are electrodes that allow for the injection of external electrical current up to 140[A].

Interaction of the electrical current and magnetic field leads to a Lorentz force (jxB) that acts as a body force on the galinstan. The Kolemen group researches the effect of this force on various hydrodynamic flow phenomena such as depth change, hydraulic jump and wave behavior.

Divertorlets concept for low-recycling slow-flow liquid-metal divertors of fusion reactors

The “divertorlets” concept is a potential non-evaporative liquid metal solution for heat removal at low recycling regime. It combines advantages of slow and fast flow speed regimes, achieving reduced MHD drag with small risk of liquid metal piling and splashing. The Plasma Control Group builds prototypes to test the performance of divertorlets at different reactor-relevant conditions. Experiments and simulations performed are proving the concept to be a compelling solution for divertor applications.

Recent Publications

  • F.Saenz, Z. Sun, A.E. Fisher, B. Wynne and E. Kolemen. “Divertorlets concept for low-recycling fusion reactor divertor: experimental, analytical and numerical verification“. doi: 10.1088/1741-4326/ac6682

Recent Presentations

  • F. Saenz, E. Kolemen, A. Khodak, J. Al-Salami, S. Smolentsev, Z. Sun, B. Wynne. “Experiments and simulations of free surface liquid metal flow under magnetohydrodynamic conditions at LMX-U”, Technology of Fusion Energy (TOFE) ANS meeting , June 15, 2022. pdf
  • F. Saenz, Z. Sun, B. Wynne, E. Kolemen. “Liquid Metal Divertorlets Concept: Experiments, Simulations, and Projections”, Technology of Fusion Energy (TOFE) ANS meeting , June 15, 2022 pdf